|Godzilla film series character|
Godzilla featured in the original 1954 film
|First appearance||Godzilla (1954)|
|Last appearance||Shin Godzilla (2016)|
|Family||Minilla and Godzilla Junior (adopted sons)|
Godzilla (Japanese: ã´ã¸ã© Hepburn: Gojira?) (//; [É¡oêdÊiÉ½a] ( listen)) is a fictional giant monster originating from a series of tokusatsu films of the same name from Japan. It first appeared in IshirÅ Honda's 1954 film Godzilla. Since then, Godzilla has gone on to become a worldwide pop culture icon, appearing in numerous media including video games, novels, comic books, television shows, 29 films produced by Toho and two Hollywood films. The character is commonly alluded by the epithet "King of the Monsters"; a phrase first used in Godzilla, King of the Monsters!, the Americanized version of Honda's original 1954 film.
With the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Lucky Dragon 5 incident still fresh in the Japanese consciousness, Godzilla was conceived as a metaphor for nuclear weapons. As the film series expanded, some stories took on less serious undertones portraying Godzilla as an antihero while other plots still portrayed Godzilla as a destructive monster; sometimes the lesser of two threats who plays the defender by default but is still a danger to humanity. With the end of the Cold War, several post-1984 Godzilla films shifted the character's portrayal as a symbol of nuclear weapons to that of modern Japan's forgetfulness over its imperial past, natural disasters and the overall human condition.
In the various stories it has appeared in, Godzilla has been featured alongside many supporting characters. It has faced human opponents such as the JSDF, and other giant monsters, from recurring characters like King Ghidorah, Gigan and Mechagodzilla to one-shot characters like Biollante, Destoroyah and the MUTOs. Godzilla is also shown to have allies, such as Mothra, Rodan and Anguirus (though these characters were initially portrayed as Godzilla's rivals), and offspring, such as Minilla and Godzilla Junior. Godzilla has even fought against fictional characters from other franchises in crossover media, such as King Kong and the Fantastic Four.
Gojira (ã´ã¸ã©?) is a portmanteau of the Japanese words: gorira (ã´ãªã©?, "gorilla"), and kujira (
Godzilla's name was written in ateji as Gojira (åç¾ç¾ ?), where the kanji are used for phonetic value and not for meaning. The Japanese pronunciation of the name is [É¡odÊiÉ½a] ( listen); the Anglicized form is //, with the first syllable pronounced like the word "god", and the rest rhyming with "gorilla". In the Hepburn romanization system, Godzilla's name is rendered as "Gojira", whereas in the Kunrei romanization system it is rendered as "Gozira".
During the development of the American version of Godzilla Raids Again (1955), Godzilla's name was changed to "Gigantis", a move initiated by producer Paul Schreibman, who had wanted to create a character distinct from Godzilla.
Within the context of the Japanese films, Godzilla's exact origins vary, but it is generally depicted as an enormous, violent, prehistoric sea monster awakened and empowered by nuclear radiation. Although the specific details of Godzilla's appearance have varied slightly over the years, the overall impression has remained consistent. Inspired by the fictional Rhedosaurus created by animator Ray Harryhausen for the film The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, Godzilla's iconic character design was conceived as that of an amphibious reptilian monster based around the loose concept of a dinosaur with an erect standing posture, scaly skin, an anthropomorphic torso with muscular arms, spikes on its back and tail, and a furrowed brow. Art director Akira Watanabe combined attributes of a Tyrannosaurus, an Iguanodon, a Stegosaurus and an alligator to form a sort of blended chimera, inspired by illustrations from an issue of Life magazine. To emphasise the monster's relationship with the atomic bomb, its skin texture was inspired by the keloid scars seen on survivors in Hiroshima. The basic design has a reptilian visage, a robust build, an upright posture, a long tail and rows of serrated fins along the back. In the original film, the fins were added for purely aesthetic purposes, in order to further differentiate Godzilla from any other living or extinct creature. Godzilla is sometimes depicted as green in comics, cartoons and movie posters, but the costumes used in the movies were usually painted charcoal grey with bone-white dorsal fins up until the film Godzilla 2000.
Godzilla's signature weapon is its "atomic breath," a nuclear blast that it generates inside of its body and unleashes from its jaws in the form of a blue or red radioactive heat ray. Tohoâs special effects department has used various techniques to render the breath, from physical gas-powered flames to hand-drawn or computer-generated fire. Godzilla is shown to possess immense physical strength and muscularity. Haruo Nakajima, the actor who played Godzilla in the original films, was a black belt in Judo and used his expertise to choreograph the battle sequences. Godzilla can breathe underwater, and is described in the original film by the character Dr. Yamane as a transitional form between a marine and a terrestrial reptile. Godzilla is shown to have great vitality: it is immune to conventional weaponry thanks to its rugged hide and ability to regenerate, and as a result of surviving a nuclear explosion, it cannot be destroyed by anything less powerful. Various films, television shows, comics and games have depicted Godzilla with additional powers such as an atomic pulse, magnetism, precognition, fireballs, an electric bite, superhuman speed, eye beams and even flight.
Godzilla's allegiance and motivations have changed from film to film to suit the needs of the story. Although Godzilla does not like humans, it will fight alongside humanity against common threats. However, it makes no special effort to protect human life or property and will turn against its human allies on a whim. It is not motivated to attack by predatory instinct: it doesn't eat people, and instead sustains itself on radiation and an omnivorous diet. When inquired if Godzilla was "good or bad", producer Shogo Tomiyama likened it to a Shinto "God of Destruction" which lacks moral agency and cannot be held to human standards of good and evil. "He totally destroys everything and then there is a rebirth. Something new and fresh can begin."
In the original Japanese films, Godzilla and all the other monsters are referred to with gender-neutral pronouns equivalent to "it", while in the English dubbed versions, Godzilla is explicitly described as a male, such as in the title of Godzilla, King of the Monsters!. The creature in the 1998 Godzilla film was depicted laying eggs through parthenogenesis.
Godzilla has a distinctive disyllabic roar (transcribed in several comics as Skreeeonk!), which was created by composer Akira Ifukube, who produced the sound by rubbing a pine-tar-resin-coated glove along the string of a contrabass and then slowing down the playback. In the American version of Godzilla Raids Again (1955) entitled Gigantis the Fire Monster, Godzilla's iconic roar was substituted with that of the monster Anguirus. From The Return of Godzilla (1984) to Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah (1991), Godzilla was given a deeper and more threatening-sounding roar than in previous films, though this change was reverted from Godzilla vs. Mothra (1992) onwards. For the 2014 American film, sound editors Ethan Van der Ryn and Erik Aadahl refused to disclose the source of the sounds used for their Godzilla's roar. Aadahl described the two syllables of the roar as representing two different emotional reactions, with the first expressing fury, and the second conveying the character's soul.
Godzilla's size is inconsistent, changing from film to film and even from scene to scene for the sake of artistic license. The miniature sets and costumes were typically built at a â1â25ââ1â50 scale and filmed at 240 frames per second, to create the illusion of great size. In the original 1954 film, Godzilla was scaled to be 50 m (164 ft) tall. This was done so Godzilla could just peer over the largest buildings in Tokyo at the time. In the 1956 American version, Godzilla is estimated to be 121.9 m (400 ft) tall, because producer Joseph E. Levine felt that 50 m didn't sound "powerful enough". As the series progressed Toho would rescale the character, eventually making Godzilla as tall as 100 m (328 ft). This was so that it wouldn't be dwarfed by the newer bigger buildings in Tokyo's skyline such as the 242.9-meter-tall (797 ft) Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building which Godzilla destroyed in the film Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah (1991). Supplementary information such as character profiles would also depict Godzilla as weighing between 20,000 and 60,000 metric tons (22,000 and 66,000 short tons). In the American film Godzilla (2014) from Legendary Pictures, Godzilla was scaled to be 108.2 m (355 ft) and weighing 90,000 metric tons (99,000 short tons), making it the largest film version to that time. Director Gareth Edwards wanted Godzilla "to be so big as to be seen from anywhere in the city, but not too big that he couldnât be obscured". The producers of Shin Godzilla made Godzilla even taller than the Legendary version, at 118.5 m (389 ft).
Special effects details
Godzilla's appearance has traditionally been portrayed in the films by an actor wearing a latex costume, though the character has also been rendered in animatronic, stop-motion and computer-generated form.
Taking inspiration from King Kong, special effects artist Eiji Tsuburaya had initially wanted Godzilla to be portrayed via stop-motion, but prohibitive deadlines and a lack of experienced animators in Japan at the time made suitmation more practical. The first suit consisted of a body cavity made of thin wires and bamboo wrapped in chicken wire for support, and covered in fabric and cushions, which were then coated in latex. The first suit was held together by small hooks on the back, though subsequent Godzilla suits incorporated a zipper. Its weight was in excess of 100 kg (220 lb). Prior to 1984, most Godzilla suits were made from scratch, thus resulting in slight design changes in each film appearance. The most notable changes during the 1960s-70s were the reduction in Godzilla's number of toes and the removal of the character's external ears and prominent fangs, features which would later be reincorporated in the Godzilla designs from The Return of Godzilla (1984) onwards. The most consistent Godzilla design was maintained from Godzilla vs Biollante (1989) to Godzilla vs Destoroyah (1995), when the suit was given a cat-like face and double rows of teeth. Several suit actors had difficulties in performing as Godzilla, due to the suits' weight, lack of ventilation and diminished visibility. Kenpachiro Satsuma in particular, who portrayed Godzilla from 1984 to 1995, described how the Godzilla suits he wore were even heavier and hotter than their predecessors, because of the incorporation of animatronics. Satsuma himself suffered numerous medical issues during his tenure, including oxygen deprivation, near drowning, concussions, electric shocks, and lacerations to the legs from the suits' steel wire reinforcements wearing through the rubber padding. The ventilation problem was partially solved in the suit used in 1994's Godzilla vs. SpaceGodzilla, which was the first to include an air duct, which allowed suit actors to last longer during performances. In The Return of Godzilla (1984), some scenes made use of a 16-foot high robotic Godzilla (dubbed "Cybot") for use in close-up shots of the creature's head. The Cybot consisted of a hydraulically-powered mechanical endoskeleton covered in urethane skin containing 3,000 computer operated parts which permitted it to tilt its head, and move its lips and arms.
In Godzilla (1998), special effects artist Patrick Tatopoulos was instructed to redesign Godzilla as an incredibly fast runner. At one point, it was planned to use motion capture from a human to create the movements of the computer-generated Godzilla, but it ended up looking too much like a human in a suit. Tatopoulos subsequently reimagined the creature as a lean, digitigrade bipedal iguana that stood with its back and tail parallel to the ground, rendered via CGI. Several scenes had the monster portrayed by stuntmen in suits. The suits were similar to those used in the Toho films, with the actors' heads being located in the monster's neck region, and the facial movements controlled via animatronics. However, because of the creature's horizontal posture, the stuntmen had to wear metal leg extenders, which allowed them to stand two meters (six feet) off the ground with their feet bent forward. The film's special effects crew also built a â1â6 scale animatronic Godzilla for close-up scenes, whose size outmatched that of Stan Winston's T. rex in Jurassic Park. Kurt Carley performed the suitmation sequences for the adult Godzilla.
In Godzilla (2014), the character was portrayed entirely via CGI. Godzilla's design in the reboot was intended to stay true to that of the original series, though the film's special effects team strove to make the monster "more dynamic than a guy in a big rubber suit." To create a CG version of Godzilla, The Moving Picture Company (MPC) studied various animals such as bears, Komodo dragons, lizards, lions and wolves which helped the visual effects artists visualize Godzilla's body structure like that of its underlying bone, fat and muscle structure as well as the thickness and texture of its scale. Motion capture was also used for some of Godzilla's movements. TJ Storm provided the motion capture performance for Godzilla by wearing sensors in front of a green screen.
Godzilla is one of the most recognizable symbols of Japanese popular culture worldwide and remains an important facet of Japanese films, embodying the kaiju subset of the tokusatsu genre. Godzillaâs vaguely humanoid appearance and strained, lumbering movements endeared it to Japanese audiences, who could relate to Godzilla as a sympathetic character despite its wrathful nature. Audiences respond positively to the character because it acts out of rage and self-preservation and shows where science and technology can go wrong.
In 1967, The Keukdong Entertainment Company of South Korea, with production assistance from Toei Company who created Godzilla, introduced Yongary: Monster from the Deep, a monster who invades a local oil refinery and consumes oil. A remake was introduced in 1999 called Yonggary with a similar plot to the 1967 movie.
Godzilla has been considered a filmographic metaphor for the United States, as well as an allegory of nuclear weapons in general. The earlier Godzilla films, especially the original, portrayed Godzilla as a frightening, nuclear monster. Godzilla represented the fears that many Japanese held about the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the possibility of recurrence. As the series progressed, so did Godzilla, changing into a less destructive and more heroic character as the films became geared towards children. Since then, the character has fallen somewhere in the middle, sometimes portrayed as a protector of the world from external threats and other times as a bringer of destruction.
In 1996, Godzilla received the MTV Lifetime Achievement Award, as well, Godzilla was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004 to celebrate the premiere of the character's 50th anniversary film, Godzilla: Final Wars. Godzilla's pop-cultural impact has led to the creation of numerous parodies and tributes, as seen in media such as Bambi Meets Godzilla, which was ranked as one of the "50 greatest cartoons", various episodes of Mystery Science Theater 3000, and the song "Godzilla", by Blue Ãyster Cult. Godzilla has also been used in advertisements, such as in a commercial for Nike, where Godzilla lost a game of basketball to NBA player Charles Barkley. The commercial was subsequently adapted into a comic book illustrated by Jeff Butler. Godzilla has also appeared in a commercial for Snickers candy bar, which served as an indirect promo for the 2014 movie. Godzilla's success inspired the creation of numerous other monster characters, such as Gamera, Reptilicus of Denmark, and Gorgo of the United Kingdom.
Godzilla's fame and saurian appearance has influenced the scientific community. Gojirasaurus is a dubious genus of coelophysid dinosaur, named by paleontologist and admitted Godzilla fan Kenneth Carpenter. Dakosaurus is an extinct marine crocodile of the Jurassic Period, which researchers informally nicknamed "Godzilla". Paleontologists have written tongue-in-cheek speculative articles about Godzilla's biology, with Ken Carpenter tentatively classifying it as a ceratosaur based on its skull shape, four fingered hands and dorsal scutes, and paleontologist Darren Naish expressing skepticism while commenting on Godzilla's unusual morphology.
Godzilla's ubiquity in pop-culture has led to the mistaken assumption that the character is in the public domain, resulting in litigation by Toho to protect their corporate asset from becoming a generic trademark. In April 2008, Subway depicted a giant monster in a commercial for their Five Dollar Footlong sandwich promotion. Toho filed a lawsuit against Subway for using the character without permission, demanding $150,000 in compensation. In February 2011, Toho sued Honda for depicting a fire-breathing monster in a commercial for the Honda Odyssey. The monster was never mentioned by name, being seen briefly on a video screen inside the minivan. The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society christened a vessel Gojira. Its purpose is to target and harass Japanese whalers in defense of whales in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary. The Gojira was renamed MV Brigitte Bardot in May 2011 due to legal pressure from Toho. Gojira is the name of a French death metal band, formerly known as Godzilla; legal problems forced the band to change their name. In May 2015, Toho launched a lawsuit against Voltage Pictures over a planned picture starring Anne Hathaway. Promotional material released at the Cannes Film Festival used images of Godzilla.
To encourage tourism in April 2015 the central Shinjuku ward of Tokyo named Godzilla an official cultural ambassador. During an unveiling of a giant Godzilla bust at Toho headquarters, Shinjuki mayor Kenichi Yoshizumi stated "Godzillia is a character that is the pride of Japan." The mayor extended a residency certificate to an actor in a rubber suit representing Godzilla, but as the suit's hands were not designed for grasping it was accepted on Godzilla's behalf by a Toho executive. Reporters noted that Shinjuku ward has been flattened by Godzilla in three Toho movies.
- Barr, Jason (2016). The Kaiju Film: A Critical Study of Cinema's Biggest Monsters. McFarland. ISBN 1476623953.
- Brothers, Peter H. (2009). Mushroom Clouds and Mushroom Men - The Fantastic Cinema of Ishiro Honda. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 1492790354.
- Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series. McFarland. ISBN 9780786447497.
- Ragone, August (2007, 2014). Eiji Tsuburaya: Master of Monsters San Francisco, California: Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-6078-9.
- Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japanâs Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. Toronto: ECW Press. ISBN 1550223488.
- Tsutsui, William M. (2003). Godzilla on My Mind: Fifty Years of the King of Monsters. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403964742.
- Takeo Murata (writer) and IshirÅ Honda (writer/director) (2006). Godzilla (DVD). Classic Media.
- Al C. Ward (writer) and IshirÅ Honda, Terry Morse (writers/directors) (2006). Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (DVD). Classic Media.
- Ashcraft, Brian (August 1, 2016). "Meet Godzilla Resurgence's Motion Capture Actor". Kotaku. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- Mirjahangir, Chris (November 7, 2014). "Nakajima and Carley: Godzilla's 1954 and 1998". Toho Kingdom. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- Arce, Sergio (May 29, 2014). "Meet the actor who gives life to Godzilla". crhoy.com. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- Oceanside Intl Film Festival (March 28, 2016). "Interview with Mocap Artist/Voice Actor T.J. Storm". Youtube. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- Classic Media Godzilla 2006 DVD - Special Features: Making of The Godzilla Suit - Ed Godziszewski
- Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956). Directed by IshirÅ Honda and Terry O. Morse. Toho
- Godzilla vs. Megaguirus (2000). Directed by Masaaki Tezuka. Toho
- Godzilla: Final Wars (2004). Directed by Ryuhei Kitamura. Toho
- "Godzilla, Marvel 1977 series". Comics.org. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Godzilla Raids Again (US release) 1959 Toho
- Invasion of Astro-Monster (1965). Directed by IshirÅ Honda. Toho
- Godzila, Mothra, and King Ghidorah (2001). Directed by Shusuke Kaneko. Toho
- DeSentis, John. "GODZILLA SOUNDTRACK PERFECT COLLECTION BOX 6". Scifi Japan. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- Godzilla (2014). Directed by Gareth Edwards. Legendary Pictures
- Brothers 2009.
- Barr 2016, p. 83.
- Robbie Collin (May 13, 2014). "Gareth Edwards interview: 'I wanted Godzilla to reflect the questions raised by Fukushima'". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- Ryfle 1998, p. 22.
- "Gojira Media". Godzila Gojimm. Toho Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- Ryfle 1998, p. 23.
- Ryfle 1998, p. 74.
- Peter Bradshaw (October 14, 2005). "Godzilla | Culture". London: The Guardian. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Biondi, R, "The Evolution of Godzilla â G-Suit Variations Throughout the Monster Kingâs Twenty One Films", G-FAN Issue #July 16/August 1995
- Greenberger, R. (2005). Meet Godzilla. Rosen Pub Group. p. 15. ISBN 1404202692
- Kishikawa, O. (1994), Godzilla First, 1954 ~ 1955, Big Japanese Painting, ASIN B0014M3KJ6
- Kravets, David (November 24, 2008). "Think Godzilla's Scary? Meet His Lawyers". Wired. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
- Snider, Mike (August 29, 2006). "Godzilla arouses atomic terror". USA Today. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- Tsutsui 2003, p. 23.
- "Gojira". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- Making of the Godzilla Suit!. Ed Godziszewski. Youtube (December 24, 2010)
- An Anatomical Guide to Monsters, Shoji Otomo, 1967
- Haruo Nakajima, Godzilla Criterion Collection Blu-Ray special featurette
- The Art of Suit Acting - Classic Media Godzilla Raids Again DVD featurette
- Godzilla 2000 (1999). Directed by Takao Okawara. Toho.
- Godzilla vs. King Ghidorah (1991). Directed by Kazuki Åmori. Toho
- Godzilla vs. Mechagodzilla (1974). Directed by Jun Fukuda. Toho
- Godzilla vs. Biollante (1989). Directed by Kazuki Åmori. Toho
- Godzilla: Destroy All Monsters Melee (2002). Pipeworks Software
- CR Godzilla Pachinko (2006). Newgin
- Zone Fighter (1973). Directed by IshirÅ Honda et al. Toho
- The Godzilla Power Hour (1978). Directed by Ray Patterson and Carl Urbano. Hanna-Barbera Productions
- Godzilla vs. Hedorah (1971). Directed by Yoshimitsu Banno. Toho
- Ghidorah, the Three-Headed Monster (1964). Directed by IshirÅ Honda. Toho.
- Godzilla: Unleashed - Godzilla 2000 character profile
- "Ryuhei Ktamura & Shogo Tomiyama interview - Godzilla Final Wars premiere - PennyBlood.com". Web.archive.org. February 3, 2005. Archived from the original on February 3, 2005. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- The Return of Godzilla (1985). Directed by Koji Hashimoto. Toho
- Milliron, K. & Eggleton, B. (1998), Godzilla Likes to Roar!, Random House Books for Young Readers, ISBN 0679891250
- Peter H. Brothers. Mushroom Clouds and Mushroom Men: The Fantastic Cinema of Ishiro Honda. Author House. 2009. Pgs. 47-48
- Tsutsui 2003, p. 12.
- Stradley, R., Adams, A., et. al. Godzilla: Age of Monsters (February 18, 1998), Dark Horse; Gph edition. ISBN 1569712778
- Various. Godzilla: Past, Present, Future (March 5, 1998), Dark Horse; Gph edition. ISBN 1569712786
- NPR Staff. "What's In A Roar? Crafting Godzilla's Iconic Sound". National Public Radio. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- David Milner, "Takao Okawara Interview I", Kaiju Conversations (December 1993)
- Ray, Amber (May 22, 2014). "'Godzilla': The secrets behind the roar". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- "Godzilla". Gvsdestoroyah.dulcemichaelanya.com. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Amazing and Interesting Facts about Godzilla Special Effects - Special Effects in Godzilla Movies - Hi-tech - Kids". Web Japan. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "Godzilla (1954) stats and bio page". www.tohokingdom.com. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- Ryfle 1998, p. 27.
- Tsutsui 2003, p. 54-55.
- "Godzilla (1991) stats and bio page". www.tohokingdom.com. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "The Newest Godzilla Would Have Taken 450 Years To Design On A Single Computer". http://thecreatorsproject.vice.com/. Retrieved 1 May 2014. External link in
- "The New Godzilla is 350 Feet Tall! Biggest Godzilla Ever!". Movie Tribute. February 28, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- "2016å¹´æ°ä½ãã´ã¸ã©ããèæ¬ã»ç·ç£ç£ï¼åºµéç§ææ°ï¼ç£ç£ï¼æ¨å£çå£æ°ããã¡ãã»ã¼ã¸". oricon.co.jp. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Kalat 2010, p. 36.
- Kalat 2010, p. 160.
- Ryfle 1998, p. 254-257.
- Clements, J. (2010), Schoolgirl Milky Crisis: Adventures in the Anime and Manga Trade, A-Net Digital LLC, pp. 117-118, ISBN 0984593748
- Kalat 2010, p. 258.
- Ryfle 1998, p. 298.
- Ryfle 1998, p. 232.
- Rickitt, Richard (2006). Designing Movie Creatures and Characters: Behind the Scenes With the Movie Masters. Focal Press. pp. 74â76. ISBN 0-240-80846-0.
- Rickitt, Richard (2000). Special Effects: The History and Technique. Billboard Books. p. 174. ISBN 0-8230-7733-0.
- "Godzilla Lives! - page 1". Theasc.com. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Ryfle 1998, p. 337-339.
- Dudek, Duane (November 8, 2013). "Oscar winner & Kenosha native Jim Rygiel gets UWM award". Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- Carolyn Giardina (December 25, 2014). "Oscars: 'Interstellar,' 'Hobbit' Visual Effects Artists Reveal How They Did It". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- Sharp, Jasper (2011). Historical Dictionary of Japanese Cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780810857957.
- West, Mark (2008). The Japanification of Children's Popular Culture: From Godzilla to Miyazaki. Scarecrow Press. p. vii. ISBN 9780810851214.
- Tadao Sato, Godzilla Criterion Collection Blu-Ray special featurette
- "The Psychological Appeal of Movie Monsters" (PDF). Calstatela.edu. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Rafferty, T., The Monster That Morphed Into a Metaphor, NYTimes (May 2, 2004)
- "Godzilla Wins The MTV Lifetime Achievement Award In 1996 â Godzilla video". Fanpop. November 3, 1954. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- "USATODAY.com - Godzilla gets Hollywood Walk of Fame star". Usatoday30.usatoday.com. November 30, 2004. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Beck, Jerry (ed.) (1994). The 50 Greatest Cartoons: As Selected by 1,000 Animation Professionals. Atlanta: Turner Publishing. ISBN 1-878685-49-X.
- "Godzilla Genealogy Bop" - MST3K season 2, episode 13, aired February 2, 1991
- Song Review by Donald A. Guarisco. "Godzilla - Blue Ãyster Cult | Listen, Appearances, Song Review". AllMusic. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Martha T. Moore. "Godzilla Meets Barkley on MTV". USA Today. September 9, 1992. 1.B.
- K. Carpenter, 1997, "A giant coelophysoid (Ceratosauria) theropod from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico, USA", Neues Jahrbuch fÃ¼r Geologie und PalÃ¤ontologie, Abhandlungen 205(2): 189-208
- Gasparini Z, Pol D, Spalletti LA. 2006. An unusual marine crocodyliform from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of Patagonia. Science 311: 70-73.
- Naish, Darren (November 1, 2010). "The science of Godzilla, 2010 â Tetrapod Zoology". Scienceblogs.com. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Toho sues Subway over unauthorized Godzilla ads, The Japan Times (April 18, 2008)
- Toho suing Honda over Godzilla, TokyoHive (February 12, 2011)
- "Sea Shepherd Conservation Society :: The Beast Transforms into a Beauty as Godzilla Becomes the Brigitte Bardot". Seashepherd.org. May 25, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Gojira htm Biography and Band at the Gauntlet, The Gauntlet
- "Voltage Pictures Sued For Copyright Infringement". torrentfreak.com. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
- "Godzilla recruited as tourism ambassador for Tokyo". The Guardian. April 9, 2015.
- "Godzilla is Tokyo's newest resident and ambassador". New York Post. April 9, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Godzilla.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Godzilla (franchise)|
Pour accéder à la version originale de cet article ou pour participer à Wikipédia, il sous suffit de suivre ce lien
An article from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, distributed under GFDL (authors)
To view the original version of this article or to improve Wikipedia, just follow this link