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Superman

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This article is about the superhero. For other uses, see Superman (disambiguation).
Superman
SupermanRoss.png
Art by Alex Ross
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
First appearance Action Comics #1
(April 18, 1938)
Created by Jerry Siegel
Joe Shuster
In-story information
Alter ego Kal-El
Clark Kent
Species Kryptonian
Place of origin Krypton
Team affiliations Justice League
Legion of Super-Heroes
Partnerships Batman
Wonder Woman
Krypto
Supergirl
Superboy (Kon-El)
Steel (John Henry Irons)
Jimmy Olsen
Notable aliases Nightwing,[1] Superboy
Abilities
  • Superhuman strength, speed, senses, endurance, and longevity
  • Flight
  • Heat vision
  • Freezing breath
  • Extrasensory and visual powers, including X-ray vision

Superman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. He was created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster in 1933; later, in 1938, the character was sold to Detective Comics, Inc. (later DC Comics). Superman first appeared in Action Comics #1 (June 1938) and subsequently appeared in various radio serials, newspaper strips, television programs, films, and video games. With this success, Superman helped to create the superhero genre and establish its primacy within the American comic book.[2]

Superman's appearance is distinctive and iconic; he usually wears a blue costume, red cape, and stylized red-and-yellow "S" shield on his chest.[3][4][5] This shield is used in a myriad of media to symbolize the character.[6] The origin story of Superman relates that he was born Kal-El on the planet Krypton, before being rocketed to Earth as an infant by his scientist father Jor-El, moments before Krypton's destruction. Discovered and adopted by a Kansas farmer and his wife, the child is raised as Clark Kent and imbued with a strong moral compass. Very early on he started to display various superhuman abilities, which, upon reaching maturity, he resolved to use for the benefit of humanity through a secret "Superman" identity. Superman resides and operates in the fictional American city of Metropolis. As Clark Kent, he is a journalist for the Daily Planet, a Metropolis newspaper. Superman's love interest is generally Lois Lane, and his archenemy is supervillain Lex Luthor. He is typically a member of the Justice League and close ally of Batman and Wonder Woman. Like other characters in the DC Universe, several alternate versions of Superman have been produced.

Superman is widely considered an American cultural icon.[2][7][8][9] He has fascinated scholars, with cultural theorists, commentators, and critics alike exploring the character's impact and role in the United States and worldwide. The character's ownership has often been the subject of dispute, with Siegel and Shuster twice suing for the return of rights. Superman is listed as the greatest comic-book hero by IGN, where editors noted that the character was the blueprint for subsequent superheroes.[10]

Publication history

Creation and conception

Two-page spread titled "The Reign of the Superman". On the left page is a bald men, and along both pages is a futuristic town.
"The Reign of the Superman" from Siegel's fanzine (January 1933)

In early 1933, while still in high school,[11] Jerry Siegel wrote a short story, illustrated by his friend and classmate Joe Shuster, titled "The Reign of the Superman", which Siegel self-published in his fanzine, Science Fiction #3. The titular character is a vagrant who gains vast psychic powers from an experimental drug and uses them maliciously for profit and amusement, only to lose them and become a vagrant again, ashamed that he will be remembered only as a villain.[12]

In June 1933,[13] Siegel developed a new character, also named Superman, but now a heroic character, which Siegel felt would be more marketable.[14] This was a journalist named Clark Kent who pretended to be meek and mild-mannered but was secretly the mighty Superman. He was enamored with Lois Lane, but she scorned Clark Kent and was attracted to Superman, not knowing that Kent and Superman were the same person.[15] This early prototype of Superman was merely a strong human who had no superpowers, nor his familiar costume.[16][17]

A rejected 1933 proposal by Siegel and Shuster.

Siegel shared his idea with Shuster and they hastily put together a comic story titled "The Superman" and submitted it to Humor Publishing in Chicago, which released three proto-comic books in 1933.[18][19] Although the duo received an encouraging letter, Humor published no further comics.[20]

Siegel, believing publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, moved to replace Shuster with an established artist.[21] When Siegel told Shuster he was doing so, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover.[22]

Siegel solicited multiple artists,[21][23] and in 1934, Russell Keaton,[23] who worked on the Buck Rogers comic strip, responded. In nine sample strips Keaton produced based on Siegel's treatment, the Superman character further evolves: In the distant future, when Earth is on the verge of exploding due to "giant cataclysms", the last surviving man sends his child back in time to the year 1935, where he is adopted by Sam and Molly Kent. The boy exhibits superhuman strength and bulletproof skin, and the Kents teach him to use his powers for good.[24][25] However, the newspaper syndicates rejected their work and Keaton abandoned the project.[26]

Siegel and Shuster reconciled and continued developing Superman.[26] The character became an alien from the planet Krypton with the now-familiar costume: tight-fitting clothes with an "S" on the chest, over-shorts, and a cape.[27]

Siegel and Shuster entered the comics field professionally in 1935, producing detective and adventure stories on a work-for-hire basis for the comic-book publisher National Allied Publications. Although National expressed interest in Superman,[28] Siegel and Shuster wanted to sell Superman as a syndicated comic strip, believing syndication would give them more lucrative and stable work,[29] but the newspaper syndicates all turned them down.[30] Max Gaines, who worked at McClure Newspaper Syndicate, suggested they show their work to Detective Comics.[31] Siegel recalled,

I resubmitted 'Superman' to him, together with other proposed comics. In early December, I visited [National Allied's successor company] Detective Comics, Inc. in New York and was invited to submit strips to be considered for their proposed new comic book, Action Comics. Soon after, I submitted 5 strips for consideration. Detective's publishers knew Gaines, and asked him to send to them strips, which McClure had decided against using itself, for possible inclusion in Action Comics. Gaines wrote and asked me for permission to send 'Superman' and other strips ... to Detective Comics, Inc. ... I consented. ...Vin Sullivan, editor of Detective Comics, Inc., wrote to me on January 10, 1938: "I have on hand now several features you sent.... The one feature I liked best, and the one that seems to fit into the proposed schedule, is that 'Superman'....[32]

In 1938, Siegel and Shuster sold all rights to the character for $130 (the equivalent of $2,200 when adjusted for inflation).[33][34]

Publication

Action Comics #1 (June 1938), the debut of Superman; cover art by Joe Shuster

Superman's first appearance was in Action Comics #1, published by National Allied Publications, a corporate predecessor of DC Comics, on April 18, 1938 (cover-dated June 1938).[35] In 1939, a self-titled series was launched. The first issue mainly reprinted adventures published in Action Comics, but despite this the book achieved greater sales.[36] The year 1939 also saw Superman appear in New York World's Fair Comics. Superman would eventually appear throughout a host of titles, including World's Finest Comics.

Initially Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster provided the story and art for all the strips published. However, Shuster's eyesight began to deteriorate, and the increasing appearances of the character meant an increase in the workload. This led Shuster to establish a studio to assist in the production of the art,[36] although he insisted on drawing the face of every Superman the studio produced. Outside the studio, Jack Burnley began supplying covers and stories in 1940,[37] and in 1941 artist Fred Ray began contributing a stream of Superman covers, some of which, such as that of Superman #14 (February 1942), became iconic and much reproduced. Wayne Boring, initially employed in Shuster's studio, began working for DC in his own right in 1942 providing pages for both Superman and Action Comics.[38] Al Plastino was hired initially to mimic Boring but was eventually allowed to create his own style and became one of the most prolific Superman artists during the Gold and Silver Ages of comics.[39]

Action Comics vol. 2, #1 (Nov. 2011) marked the relaunch of the DC Universe, including the Superman titles. The revamp featured a new outfit temporarily replacing the iconic costume; cover art by Rags Morales.

In late 1939 a new editorial team assumed control of the character's adventures. Whitney Ellsworth, Mort Weisinger, and Jack Schiff were brought in following Vin Sullivan's departure. This new editorial team brought in established science-fiction writers Edmond Hamilton, Manly Wade Wellman, and Alfred Bester to script.[40] By 1943, Siegel was drafted into the U.S. Army and as a result his contributions diminished. Don Cameron and Alvin Schwartz joined as writers, Schwartz teaming with Boring to work on the Superman comic strip, which Siegel and Shuster launched in 1939.[38] In 1945, Superboy — the teen Superman in flashback stories — debuted in More Fun Comics #101. The character moved to Adventure Comics in 1946, and his own title, Superboy, in 1949. The 1950s saw the launching of Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen (1954) and Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane (1958). By the 1970s, Superman was appearing in numerous DC Comics.

In 1986, DC Comics restructured its universe with other DC characters in the 12-issue miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, resulting in the publication of "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow", a two-part story written by Alan Moore, with art by Curt Swan, George Pérez and Kurt Schaffenberger. Published in Superman #423 and Action Comics #583 (both Sept. 1986),[41] it presented what historian Les Daniels notes as "the sense of loss the fans might have experienced if this had really been the last Superman tale."[42]

DC relaunched Superman in 1986 under writer and artist John Byrne, initially in a six-issue weekly series The Man of Steel (1986). A special "direct-sale-only" cover of #1 featured the iconic chest "S" symbol of Superman's costume. Superman vol. 2 debuted that year, running through 2006. After it was canceled, The Adventures of Superman was retitled Superman, as Adventures had maintained the issue numbering of the first volume of Superman. Another series, Superman: The Man of Steel, had been launched in 1991, running until 2003, while the quarterly book Superman: The Man of Tomorrow ran from 1995 to 1999. Superman has appeared in numerous other titles throughout the early 21st century.

In 2011, DC Comics again relaunched the Superman comics with Action Comics vol 2, #1 (Nov. 2011), along with Superman vol 3, #1 (Nov. 2011) and the rest of the company's series as the New 52.[43][44] Superman's look was redesigned, and he briefly wore a tee shirt, jeans, shoes, and red cape after the New 52 relaunch.[45] This look was replaceed by a new costume, which had segmented armor without the red shorts he once wore over his tights. As of 2013, ongoing publications that feature Superman on a regular basis are Superman, Action Comics, and Justice League. In February 2015, Superman received a new outfit, starting in Superman #38, in which the segmented armor was replaced with a smoother texture and small details to the costume were changed, such as those regarding his collar, belt, and boots.[46]

Influences

Like Superman, John Carter of Mars is a stranger from another world who is stronger than the natives of his adopted home.

Siegel and Shuster were avid readers of pulp science-fiction and adventure magazines, and many stories featured characters with extraordinary powers such as telepathy, clairvoyance, and superhuman strength. A major influence was Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter of Mars, a human who was displaced to Mars, where he is stronger and more agile than the native Martians due to Mars' lower gravity.[47] While it is widely assumed that the 1930 Philip Wylie novel Gladiator, featuring a protagonist, Hugo Danner, with similar powers, was an inspiration for Superman,[48][49] Siegel denied this.[50]

Siegel and Shuster were also avid moviegoers.[51] Shuster based Superman's stance on that of Douglas Fairbanks, who starred in adventure films such as The Mark of Zorro and Robin Hood.[52] The name of Superman's home city, Metropolis, was taken from the 1927 film of the same name.[51] Popeye cartoons were also an influence.[53]

The pair collected comic strips in their youth, with a favorite being Winsor McCay's fantastical Little Nemo.[51] Shuster remarked on the artists which played an important part in the development of his own style: "Alex Raymond and Burne Hogarth were my idols – also Milt Caniff, Hal Foster, and Roy Crane."[51] Shuster taught himself to draw by tracing over the art in the strips and magazines they collected.[54]

As a boy, Shuster was obsessed with fitness culture[53] and a fan of strongmen such as Siegmund Breitbart and Joseph Greenstein. He collected fitness magazines and manuals and used their photographs as visual references for his art.[54]

The visual design of Superman came from multiple influences. The tight-fitting suit and shorts were inspired by the costumes of wrestlers, boxers, and strongmen. Shuster first gave Superman laced sandals like those of strongmen and classical heroes.[55] The emblem on his chest may have been inspired by Flash Gordon's costume or the uniforms of athletic teams. Many pulp action heroes such as swashbucklers wore capes. Superman's face was based on Johnny Weissmuller's.[54]

The word "superman" was commonly used in the 1920s and 1930s to describe both real and fictional people of great ability, most often athletes and politicians.[54] It is unclear whether Siegel and Shuster were influenced by Nietzsche's concept of the Übermensch;[56] they never acknowledged as much.[57]

Copyright and ownership issues

Siegel and Shuster sold all rights to Superman to National Allied Publications in 1938 for $130. When Superman became a great success, they tried to renegotiate this deal but were refused. They were thus forced to write Superman stories for National on a work-for-hire basis.[58]

In 1947, Siegel and Shuster sued National for the rights to Superman and Superboy (Siegel created Superboy and submitted a script in 1940, and National published the story without making any deal). The judge ruled that the pair had indeed sold off their rights to Superman in the 1938 contract, but ruled that Superboy was a separate entity that rightfully belonged to Siegel. Siegel and Shuster settled out-of-court with National; National paid the pair $94,000 ($930,000 when adjusted for inflation) in exchange for the full rights to both Superman and Superboy.[59]

In 1969, Siegel and Shuster attempted to take back the rights to Superman using the renewal option the Copyright Act of 1909. The court ruled that Siegel and Shuster had transferred the renewal rights to National and thus could not take back the rights. Siegel and Shuster appealed, but the appeals court upheld this decision.

In 1975, Siegel and a number of other comic book writers and artists launched a campaign for better compensation and treatment of comic creators. Warner Brothers agreed to give Siegel and Shuster a yearly stipend, full medical benefits, and credit their names in all future Superman stories, in exchange for never contesting ownership of Superman. Siegel and Shuster upheld this bargain.[54]

Shuster died in 1992. DC Comics offered Shuster's heirs a stipend in exchange for never challenging ownership of Superman, which they accepted for some years.[59]

Siegel died in 1996. His heirs attempted to take back the rights to Superman using the termination provision of the Copyright Act of 1976. DC Comics negotiated an agreement wherein they would pay the Siegel heirs several million dollars and a yearly stipend of $500,000 in exchange for permanently granting DC the rights to Superman. The Siegels accepted DC's offer in an October 2001 letter.[59]

At this point, a copyright lawyer and movie producer named Marc Toberoff struck a deal with the heirs of both Siegel and Shuster: he would help them get back all the rights to Superman, and they in turn would sign them over to his production company, Pacific Pictures. This deal would have been far more profitable than what DC was offering, and both groups accepted. The Siegel heirs called off their deal with DC Comics and in 2004 sued DC Comics for the rights to Superman and Superboy. In 2008, the judge ruled in favor of the Siegels. DC Comics appealed the decision, and the appeals court ruled in favored of DC Comics, arguing that the October 2001 letter was legally binding. In 2003, the Shuster heirs served a termination notice for Shuster's grant of his half of the copyright to Superman. DC Comics sued the Shuster heirs in 2010, and the court ruled in DC's favor on the grounds that the 1992 agreement with the Shuster heirs barred them from terminating the grant.[59]

Superman is due to enter the public domain in 2033.[59][60]

Copyright infringement lawsuits

Shortly after Superman became a profitable item, imitations began to appear in competing comic strips and unauthorized character merchandise. Among the many Superman litigations have been Superman v. Wonderman, Superman v. Captain Marvel, and Superman v. The Greatest American Hero.

In 1979, proprietors of the Superman copyright prevented a discount chain from using a television commercial that parodied well-known lines associated with Superman—"Look! ... Up in the sky! ... It's a bird! ... It's a plane ... It's ... Crazy Eddie!"—and showed a cape-wearing figure in tights flying through the sky.[61]

Fictional character biography

Given the serial nature of comic book publishing and length of the character's existence, the details of Superman's origin, relationships, and abilities have changed significantly throughout the years.[62] Changes and differences in the character's biography are explained to the reader in that there are different versions of Superman existing in separate, parallel universes as part of a larger DC Comics multiverse.[63] For example, the first Superman of the Golden Age of Comic Books is not the same entity as the second Superman of the Silver Age of Comic Books; these incarnations exist in different universes with alternate versions of planet Earth, called Earth-Two and Earth-One, respectively.[63] The Superman of current continuity exists in the main DC Universe, referred to as "New-Earth" in the comics.[63]

Superman's powers and his foes were developed through the 1940s, with Superman developing the ability to fly, and costumed villains introduced in 1941.[64] The character was shown as learning of the existence of Krypton in 1949. The concept itself had originally been established to the reader in 1939 in the Superman comic strip.[65] The 1960s saw the introduction of a second Superman. DC had established its multiverse, allowing characters published in the 1940s to exist alongside updated counterparts published in the 1960s. The second Superman was introduced to explain to the reader Superman's membership in both the 1940s superhero team the Justice Society of America and the 1960s superhero team the Justice League of America.[66]

A crying Lois Lane hugs the bloody and battered corpse of Superman, while a sad Jimmy Olson takes pictures behind her.
Superman dies in Lois Lane's arms: Superman vol. 2 #75 (Jan. 1993); artwork by Dan Jurgens and Brett Breeding

The 1980s saw radical revisions of the character. DC decided to remove the multiverse in a bid to simplify its comics line. This led to the rewriting of the back story of the characters DC published, Superman included. John Byrne rewrote Superman, removing many established conventions and characters from continuity, including Superboy and Supergirl. Byrne also re-established Superman's adoptive parents, The Kents, as characters.[67] In the previous continuity, the characters had been written as having died early in Superman's life (about the time of Clark Kent's graduation from high school).

In 1992 Superman was killed by the villain Doomsday,[68] although the character was soon resurrected the following year.[69] Superman also marries Lois Lane in 1996. His origin is again revisited in 2004.[70] In 2006 Superman is stripped of his powers,[71] although these are restored within a fictional year.[72]

After a confrontation with Brainiac that results in his father's death, Superman discovers the lost city of Kandor, which contains 10,000 Kryptonians. Their stay on Earth causes trouble, and the Kryptonians create their own planet, New Krypton. Eventually, New Krypton wages war against Earth. The two sides sustain major casualties and most of the Kryptonians are killed. Superman then starts a journey to reconnect with his adopted home world.[73]

In 2011, DC Comics relaunched its entire line of comic books, including the Superman franchise, in order to make the characters more modern and accessible. In the new continuity, Clark is no longer married to Lois and his parents died when he was in high school. Superman wears a ceremonial battle armor which pays tribute to his Kryptonian heritage. The armor is similar to his classic outfit, with the difference of lacking the traditional red briefs. In Superman (Vol 3) #38 (February 2015), the armor was destroyed and he received a new cloth costume with a few cosmetic differences.[74] As of March 2015, it was announced Superman would be using a different outfit, consisting on a simple blue T-shirt with the 'S symbol', and regular jeans and tennis shoes, in a storyline in which Superman is significantly depowered and his secret identity exposed to the whole world,[75] forcing him to drastically change his approach to heroism and struggle with weakness for the first time.[76] Superman decides to work with Luthor to discover what depowered him.[77]

Age and birthday

Superman's age has varied through his history in comics. His age was originally left undefined, with real-time references to specific years sometimes given to past events in Golden Age and early Silver Age comics. In comics published between the early 1970s and early 1990s, his age was usually cited as 29 years old.[78] However, during "The Death of Superman" storyline, Clark's age was given as 34 years old (in a fictional promotional newspaper published), while 1994's "Zero Hour" timeline established his age as 35.

Action Comics #149 (Oct. 1950) gives October as Superman's birthdate. Comics of the 1960s through 1980s describe Superman's birthday as February 29.[79] Clark Kent, meanwhile, would celebrate his birthday on June 18, the date the Kents first found Clark; June 18 is also the birthdate of Superman voice actor Bud Collyer.[80] Following the 1980s editorial-revamp DC called Crisis on Infinite Earths, Kent's birthday is given as February 29.[81] Superman: Secret Origin #1 (Nov. 2009) depicts Kent celebrating his birthday on December 1.

Personality

In the original Siegel and Shuster stories, Superman's personality is rough and aggressive. The character often attacks and terrorizes wife beaters, profiteers, lynch mobs, and gangsters in a rough manner and with a looser moral code than audiences today might be used to.[82] Although not as ruthless as the early Batman, Superman in the comics of the 1930s is unconcerned about the harm his strength may cause. He tosses villainous characters in such a manner that fatalities would presumably occur, although these are seldom shown explicitly on the page. This came to an end in late 1940 when new editor Whitney Ellsworth instituted a code of conduct for his characters to follow, banning Superman from ever killing.[65] The character was softened and given a sense of humanitarianism. Ellsworth's code, however, is not to be confused with "the Comics Code", which was created in 1954 by the Comics Code Authority and ultimately abandoned by every major comic book publisher by the early 21st century.[83]

In his first appearances, Superman was considered a vigilante by the authorities, being fired upon by the National Guard as he razed a slum so that the government would create better housing conditions for the poor. By 1942, however, Superman was working side-by-side with the police.[84][85] Today, Superman is commonly seen as a brave and kind-hearted hero with a strong sense of justice, morality, and righteousness. He adheres to an unwavering moral code instilled in him by his adoptive parents.[86] His commitment to operating within the law has been an example to many citizens and other heroes but has stirred resentment and criticism among others, who refer to him as the "big blue boy scout." Superman can be rather rigid in this trait, causing tensions in the superhero community.[87] This was most notable with Wonder Woman, one of his closest friends, after she killed Maxwell Lord.[87] Booster Gold had an initial icy relationship with the Man of Steel but grew to respect him.[88]

Having lost his home world of Krypton, Superman is very protective of Earth, and especially of Clark Kent's family and friends. This same loss, combined with the pressure of using his powers responsibly, has caused Superman to feel lonely on Earth, despite having his friends and parents. Previous encounters with people he thought to be fellow Kryptonians, Power Girl[89] (who is, in fact from the Krypton of the Earth-Two universe) and Mon-El,[90] have led to disappointment. The arrival of Supergirl, who has been confirmed to be not only from Krypton but also his cousin, has relieved this loneliness somewhat.[91] Superman's Fortress of Solitude acts as a place of solace for him in times of loneliness and despair.[63]

In Superman/Batman #3 (Dec. 2003), Batman, under writer Jeph Loeb, observes, "It is a remarkable dichotomy. In many ways, Clark is the most human of us all. Then ... he shoots fire from the skies, and it is difficult not to think of him as a god. And how fortunate we all are that it does not occur to 'him'." In writer Geoff Johns' Infinite Crisis #1 (Dec. 2005), part of the 2005–2006 "Infinite Crisis" crossover storyline, Batman admonishes him for identifying with humanity too much and failing to provide the strong leadership that superhumans need.

Other versions

Both the multiverse established by the publishers in the 1960s and the Elseworlds line of comics established in 1989 have allowed writers to introduce variations on Superman. These have included differences in the nationality, race and morality of the character. Alongside such reimaginings, a number of characters have assumed the title of Superman, especially in the wake of "The Death of Superman" storyline, wherein four newly introduced characters are seen to claim the mantle.[92] In addition to these, the Bizarro character created in 1958 is a weird, imperfect duplicate of Superman.[93] Other members of Superman's family of characters have borne the Super- prefix, including Supergirl, Krypto the Superdog, and Superwoman. Outside comics published by DC, the notoriety of the Superman or "Übermensch" archetype makes the character a popular figure to be represented through an analogue in entirely unrelated continuities. For example, Roy Thomas based rival publisher Marvel Comics' Hyperion character on Superman.[94][95][96][97]

Powers and abilities

As an influential archetype of the superhero genre, Superman possesses extraordinary powers, with the character traditionally described as "Faster than a speeding bullet. More powerful than a locomotive. Able to leap tall buildings in a single bound ... It's Superman!",[98] a phrase coined by Jay Morton and first used in the Superman radio serials and Max Fleischer animated shorts of the 1940s[99] as well as the TV series of the 1950s. For most of his existence, Superman's famous arsenal of powers has included flight, super-strength, invulnerability to non-magical attacks, super-speed, vision powers (including x-ray, heat-emitting, telescopic, infra-red, and microscopic vision), super-hearing, super-intelligence, and super-breath, which enables him to blow out air at freezing temperatures, as well as exert the propulsive force of high-speed winds.[100]

As originally conceived and presented in his early stories, Superman's powers were relatively limited, consisting of superhuman strength that allowed him to lift a car over his head, run at amazing speeds and leap one-eighth of a mile, as well as an incredibly dense body structure that could be pierced by nothing less than an exploding artillery shell.[100] Siegel and Shuster compared his strength and leaping abilities to an ant and a grasshopper.[101] When making the Superman cartoons in the early 1940s, the Fleischer Brothers found it difficult to keep animating him leaping and requested to DC to change his ability to flying; this was an especially convenient concept for short films, which would have otherwise had to waste precious running time moving earthbound Clark Kent from place to place.[102] Writers gradually increased his powers to larger extents during the Silver Age, in which Superman could fly to other worlds and galaxies and even across universes with relative ease.[100] He would often fly across the solar system to stop meteors from hitting the Earth or sometimes just to clear his head. Writers found it increasingly difficult to write Superman stories in which the character was believably challenged,[103] so DC made a series of attempts to rein the character in. The most significant attempt, John Byrne's 1986 rewrite, established several hard limits on his abilities: He barely survives a nuclear blast, and his space flights are limited by how long he can hold his breath.[104] Superman's power levels have again increased since then, with Superman currently possessing enough strength to hurl mountains, withstand nuclear blasts with ease, fly into the sun unharmed, and survive in the vacuum of outer space without oxygen.

The source of Superman's powers has changed subtly over the course of his history. It was originally stated that Superman's abilities derived from his Kryptonian heritage, which made him eons more evolved than humans.[65] This was soon amended, with the source for the powers now based upon the establishment of Krypton's gravity as having been stronger than that of the Earth. This situation mirrors that of Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter. As Superman's powers increased, the implication that all Kryptonians had possessed the same abilities became problematic for writers, making it doubtful that a race of such beings could have been wiped out by something as trifling as an exploding planet. In part to counter this, the Superman writers established that Kryptonians, whose native star Rao had been red, possessed superpowers only under the light of a yellow sun.[105]

Superman is most vulnerable to green Kryptonite, mineral debris from Krypton transformed into radioactive material by the forces that destroyed the planet. Exposure to green Kryptonite radiation nullifies Superman's powers and immobilizes him with pain and nausea; prolonged exposure will eventually kill him. The only substance on Earth that can protect him from Kryptonite is lead, which blocks the radiation. Lead is also the only known substance that Superman cannot see through with his x-ray vision. Kryptonite was first introduced to the public in 1943 as a plot device to allow the radio serial voice actor, Bud Collyer, to take some time off.[62] Although green Kryptonite is the most commonly seen form, writers have introduced other forms over the years: such as red, gold, blue, white, and black, each with its own effect.[106]

Supporting characters

Clark Kent, Superman's secret identity, was based partly on Harold Lloyd and named after Clark Gable and Kent Taylor.[107][108] Creators have discussed the idea of whether Superman pretends to be Clark Kent or vice versa, and at differing times in the publication either approach has been adopted.[109][110] Although typically a newspaper reporter, during the 1970s the character left the Daily Planet for a time to work for television,[110] whilst the 1980s revamp by John Byrne saw the character become somewhat more aggressive.[104] This aggressiveness has since faded with subsequent creators restoring the mild mannerisms traditional to the character.

Superman's large cast of supporting characters includes Lois Lane, perhaps the character most commonly associated with Superman, being portrayed at different times as his colleague, competitor, love interest and wife. Other main supporting characters include Daily Planet coworkers such as photographer Jimmy Olsen and editor Perry White, Clark Kent's adoptive parents Jonathan and Martha Kent, childhood sweetheart Lana Lang and best friend Pete Ross, associates like Professor Hamilton and John Henry Irons who often provide scientific advice and tech support, and former college love interest Lori Lemaris (a mermaid). Stories making reference to the possibility of Superman siring children have been featured both in and out of mainstream continuity.

Incarnations of Supergirl, Krypto the Superdog, and Superboy have also been major characters in the mythos, as well as the Justice League of America (of which Superman is usually a member and often its leader). A feature shared by several supporting characters is alliterative names, especially with the initials "LL", including Lex Luthor, Lois Lane, Linda Lee, Lana Lang, Lori Lemaris, and Lucy Lane,[111] alliteration being common in early comics.

Team-ups with fellow comics icon Batman are common, inspiring many stories over the years. When paired, they are often referred to as the "World's Finest" in a nod to the name of the comic book series that features many team-up stories. In 2003, DC began to publish a new series featuring the two characters titled Superman/Batman or Batman/Superman. In continuity following the DC Comic's The New 52 line-wide relaunch, Superman has also established a romantic relationship as well as a working partnership with Wonder Woman. An ongoing comic book series titled Superman/Wonder Woman debuted in 2013, which explores their relationship and shared adventures.

Enemies

Superman has a rogues gallery of enemies, including his most well-known nemesis, Lex Luthor, who has been envisioned over the years in various forms as both a recluse with advanced weaponry and a personal vendetta, to a power-mad billionaire, who thinks Superman is somehow hindering human progress by his heroic efforts.[112] In the 2000s, he even becomes president of the United States,[113] and has been depicted occasionally as a former childhood friend of Clark Kent. The alien android (in most incarnations) known as Brainiac is considered by Richard George to be the second most effective enemy of Superman.[114] The enemy that accomplished the most, by actually killing Superman, is the raging monster Doomsday. Darkseid, one of the most powerful beings in the DC Universe, is also a formidable nemesis in most post-Crisis comics. Other important enemies who have featured in various incarnations of the character, from comic books to film and television, include the fifth-dimensional imp Mister Mxyzptlk, the reverse Superman known as Bizarro, and the Kryptonian criminal General Zod, Metallo, among many others.

Cultural impact

Superman has come to be seen as both an American cultural icon[115][116] and the first comic book superhero. His adventures and popularity have established the character as an inspiring force within the public eye, with the character serving as inspiration for musicians, comedians and writers alike. Kryptonite, Brainiac and Bizarro have become synonymous in popular vernacular with Achilles' heel, extreme intelligence[117] and reversed logic[118] respectively. Similarly, the phrase "I'm not Superman" or "you're not Superman" is an idiom used to suggest a lack of omnipotence.[119][120][121]

Inspiring a market

The character's initial success led to similar characters being created.[122][123] Batman was the first to follow, Bob Kane commenting to Vin Sullivan that given the "kind of money [Siegel and Shuster were earning with their superhero] you'll have one on Monday".[124] Victor Fox, an accountant for DC, also noticed the revenue such comics generated and commissioned Will Eisner to create a deliberately similar character to Superman. Wonder Man was published in May 1939, and although DC successfully sued, claiming plagiarism,[125] Fox had decided to cease publishing the character. Fox later had more success with the Blue Beetle. Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel, launched in 1940, was Superman's main rival for popularity throughout the 1940s and was again the subject of a lawsuit, which Fawcett eventually settled in 1953 by cessation of the publication of Captain Marvel-related works.[126] Superhero comics are now established as the dominant genre in American comic book publishing,[127] with many thousands of characters in the tradition having been created in the years since Superman's creation.[128]

Merchandising

The "S" symbol became iconic.

Superman became popular very quickly, with an additional title, Superman Quarterly, rapidly added. In 1940 the character was represented in the annual Macy's parade for the first time.[129] In fact Superman had become popular to the extent that in 1942, with sales of the character's three titles standing at a combined total of over 1.5 million, Time was reporting that "the Navy Department (had) ruled that Superman comic books should be included among essential supplies destined for the Marine garrison at Midway Islands."[130] The character was soon licensed by companies keen to cash in on this success through merchandising. The earliest paraphernalia appeared in 1939, a button proclaiming membership in the Supermen of America club. By 1940 the amount of merchandise available increased dramatically, with jigsaw puzzles, paper dolls, bubble gum and trading cards available, as well as wooden or metal figures. The popularity of such merchandise increased when Superman was licensed to appear in other media, and Les Daniels has written that this represents "the start of the process that media moguls of later decades would describe as 'synergy.'"[131] By the release of Superman Returns, Warner Bros. had arranged a cross promotion with Burger King,[132] and licensed many other products for sale.

Superman's appeal to licensees rests upon the character's continuing popularity, cross market appeal and the status of the "S" shield, the stylized magenta and gold "S" emblem Superman wears on his chest, as a fashion symbol.[133][134] The "S" shield by itself is often used in media to symbolize the Superman character.[135]

In other media

Main article: Superman (franchise)

The character of Superman has appeared in various media aside from comic books, including radio and television series, several films, and video games. The first adaptation was a daily newspaper comic strip, launched on January 16, 1939, and running through May 1966; significantly, Siegel and Shuster used the first strips to establish Superman's background, adding details such as the planet Krypton and Superman's father, Jor-El, concepts not yet established in the comic books.[65] Following on from the success of this was the first radio series, The Adventures of Superman, which premiered February 12, 1940, and featured the voice of Bud Collyer as Superman. Collyer was also cast as the voice of Superman in a series of 17 Superman animated cartoons produced by Fleischer Studios and Famous Studios for theatrical release in 1941–1943. In 1948, the movie serial Superman made Kirk Alyn the first actor to portray the hero onscreen. In 1951 came the television series Adventures of Superman starring George Reeves. Television series featuring Superman and Superboy would debut in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. In 1966 came the Broadway musical It's a Bird...It's a Plane...It's Superman, remade for television in 1975. Also in 1966, Superman starred in the first of several animated television series The New Adventures of Superman. Superman returned to movie theaters in 1978 with director Richard Donner's Superman, starring Christopher Reeve, which spawned three sequels. In 2006, Bryan Singer directed the feature Superman Returns, and in 2013, director Zack Snyder rebooted the film franchise with Man of Steel.

Musical references, parodies, and homages

Superman has also featured as an inspiration for musicians, with songs by numerous artists from several generations celebrating the character. Donovan's Billboard Hot 100 topping single "Sunshine Superman" utilized the character in both the title and the lyric, declaring "Superman and Green Lantern ain't got nothing on me."[136] Folk singer/songwriter Jim Croce sung about the character in a list of warnings in the chorus of his song "You Don't Mess Around with Jim", introducing the phrase "you don't tug on Superman's cape" into popular lexicon.[137] Other tracks to reference the character include Genesis' "Land of Confusion",[138] the video to which featured a Spitting Image puppet of Ronald Reagan dressed as Superman,[139] "(Wish I Could Fly Like) Superman" by The Kinks on their 1979 album Low Budget and "Superman" by The Clique, a track later covered by R.E.M. on its 1986 album Lifes Rich Pageant. This cover is referenced by Grant Morrison in Animal Man, in which Superman meets the character, and the track comes on Animal Man's walkman immediately after.[140] Crash Test Dummies' "Superman's Song", from the 1991 album The Ghosts That Haunt Me explores the isolation and commitment inherent in Superman's life.[141] Five for Fighting released "Superman (It's Not Easy)" in 2000, which is from Superman's point of view, although Superman is never mentioned by name.[142] From 1988 to 1993, American composer Michael Daugherty composed "Metropolis Symphony", a five-movement orchestral work inspired by Superman comics.[143][144]

A thin Superman with AIDS
Superman depicted as stricken by AIDS, in an awareness campaign

Parodies of Superman did not take long to appear, with Mighty Mouse introduced in "The Mouse of Tomorrow" animated short in 1942.[145] While the character swiftly took on a life of its own, moving beyond parody, other animated characters soon took their turn to parody the character. In 1943, Bugs Bunny was featured in a short, Super-Rabbit, which sees the character gaining powers through eating fortified carrots. This short ends with Bugs stepping into a phone booth to change into a real "Superman" and emerging as a U.S. Marine. In 1956 Daffy Duck assumes the mantle of "Cluck Trent" in the short "Stupor Duck", a role later reprised in various issues of the Looney Tunes comic book.[146] In the United Kingdom Monty Python created the character Bicycle Repairman, who fixes bicycles on a world full of Supermen, for a sketch in series of their BBC show.[147] Also on the BBC was the sitcom My Hero, which presented Thermoman as a slightly dense Superman pastiche, attempting to save the world and pursue romantic aspirations.[148] In the United States, Saturday Night Live has often parodied the figure, with Margot Kidder reprising her role as Lois Lane in a 1979 episode. The manga and anime series Dr. Slump featured the character Suppaman; a short, fat, pompous man who changes into a thinly veiled Superman-like alter-ego by eating a sour-tasting umeboshi. Jerry Seinfeld, a noted Superman fan, filled his series Seinfeld with references to the character and in 1997 asked for Superman to co-star with him in a commercial for American Express. The commercial aired during the 1998 NFL Playoffs and Super Bowl, Superman animated in the style of artist Curt Swan, again at the request of Seinfeld.[149] In January 2013, Superman was featured in ScrewAttack's web series Death Battle, where he fought a hypothetical battle with the character Son Goku and won. A rematch was staged in July 2015, with Superman winning again. Superman was voiced during the battle simulations by the voice actor ItsJustSomeRandomGuy.[150]

Superman has also been used as reference point for writers, with Steven T. Seagle's graphic novel Superman: It's a Bird exploring Seagle's feelings on his own mortality as he struggles to develop a story for a Superman tale.[151] Brad Fraser used the character as a reference point for his play Poor Super Man, with The Independent noting the central character, a gay man who has lost many friends to AIDS as someone who "identifies all the more keenly with Superman's alien-amid-deceptive-lookalikes status."[152] Superman's image was also used in an AIDS awareness campaign by French organization AIDES. Superman was depicted as emaciated and breathing from an oxygen tank, demonstrating that no-one is beyond the reach of the disease, and it can destroy the lives of everyone.[153]

Superman is also mentioned in several films, including Joel Schumacher's Batman & Robin, in which Batman states, "That's why Superman works alone ..." in reference to the many troubles caused by his partner Robin, and also in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man, in which Aunt May gives her nephew Peter Parker a word of advice not to strain himself too much because, "You're not Superman, you know", among many others.

Literary analysis

Superman has been interpreted and discussed in many forms in the years since his debut. The character's status as the first costumed superhero has allowed him to be used in many studies discussing the genre, Umberto Eco noting that "he can be seen as the representative of all his similars".[154] Writing in Time in 1971, Gerald Clarke stated: "Superman's enormous popularity might be looked upon as signalling the beginning of the end for the Horatio Alger myth of the self-made man." Clarke viewed the comics characters as having to continuously update in order to maintain relevance, and thus representing the mood of the nation. He regarded Superman's character in the early seventies as a comment on the modern world, which he saw as a place in which "only the man with superpowers can survive and prosper."[155] Andrew Arnold, writing in the early 21st century, has noted Superman's partial role in exploring assimilation, the character's alien status allowing the reader to explore attempts to fit in on a somewhat superficial level.

Clark Kent yelling "Good Grief!"
Clark Kent, argued by Jules Feiffer to be the most innovative feature of Superman

A.C. Grayling, writing in The Spectator, traces Superman's stances through the decades, from his 1930s campaign against crime being relevant to a nation under the influence of Al Capone, through the 1940s and World War II, a period in which Superman helped sell war bonds,[156] and into the 1950s, where Superman explored the new technological threats. Grayling notes the period after the Cold War as being one where "matters become merely personal: the task of pitting his brawn against the brains of Lex Luthor and Brainiac appeared to be independent of bigger questions", and discusses events post 9/11, stating that as a nation "caught between the terrifying George W. Bush and the terrorist Osama bin Laden, America is in earnest need of a Saviour for everything from the minor inconveniences to the major horrors of world catastrophe. And here he is, the down-home clean-cut boy in the blue tights and red cape".[157]

An influence on early Superman stories is the context of the Great Depression. The left-leaning perspective of creators Shuster and Siegel is reflected in early storylines.[attribution needed] Superman took on the role of social activist, fighting crooked businessmen and politicians and demolishing run-down tenements.[82] Comics scholar Roger Sabin sees this as a reflection of "the liberal idealism of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal", with Shuster and Siegel initially portraying Superman as champion to a variety of social causes.[56][158] In later Superman radio programs the character continued to take on such issues, tackling a version of the Ku Klux Klan in a 1946 broadcast, as well as combating anti-semitism and veteran discrimination.[159][160][161]

Scott Bukatman has discussed Superman, and the superhero in general, noting the ways in which they humanize large urban areas through their use of the space, especially in Superman's ability to soar over the large skyscrapers of Metropolis. He writes that the character "represented, in 1938, a kind of Corbusierian ideal. Superman has X-ray vision: walls become permeable, transparent. Through his benign, controlled authority, Superman renders the city open, modernist and democratic; he furthers a sense that Le Corbusier described in 1925, namely, that 'Everything is known to us'."[162]

Jules Feiffer has argued that Superman's real innovation lay in the creation of the Clark Kent persona, noting that what "made Superman extraordinary was his point of origin: Clark Kent." Feiffer develops the theme to establish Superman's popularity in simple wish fulfillment,[163] a point Siegel and Shuster themselves supported, Siegel commenting that "If you're interested in what made Superman what it is, here's one of the keys to what made it universally acceptable. Joe and I had certain inhibitions ... which led to wish-fulfillment which we expressed through our interest in science fiction and our comic strip. That's where the dual-identity concept came from" and Shuster supporting that as being "why so many people could relate to it".[164]

Ian Gordon suggests that the many incarnations of Superman across media use nostalgia to link the character to an ideology of the American Way. He defines this ideology as a means of associating individualism, consumerism, and democracy and as something that took shape around WWII and underpinned the war effort. Superman he notes was very much part of that effort.[165]

Superman's immigrant status is a key aspect of his appeal.[166][167][168] Aldo Regalado saw the character as pushing the boundaries of acceptance in America. The extraterrestrial origin was seen by Regalado as challenging the notion that Anglo-Saxon ancestry was the source of all might.[169] Gary Engle saw the "myth of Superman [asserting] with total confidence and a childlike innocence the value of the immigrant in American culture." He argues that Superman allowed the superhero genre to take over from the Western as the expression of immigrant sensibilities. Through the use of a dual identity, Superman allowed immigrants to identify with both their cultures. Clark Kent represents the assimilated individual, allowing Superman to express the immigrants cultural heritage for the greater good.[167] David Jenemann has offered a contrasting view. He argues that Superman's early stories portray a threat: "the possibility that the exile would overwhelm the country."[170] David Rooney, a theater critic for The New York Times, in his evaluation of the play, Year Zero, considers Superman to be the "quintessential immigrant story ... (b)orn on an alien planet, he grows stronger on Earth but maintains a secret identity tied to a homeland that continues to exert a powerful hold on him even as his every contact with those origins does him harm."[171]

Some see Judaic themes in Superman. Simcha Weinstein notes that Superman's story has some parallels to that of Moses. For example, Moses as a baby was sent away by his parents in a reed basket to escape death and adopted by a foreign culture. Weinstein also posits that Superman's Kryptonian name, "Kal-El", resembles the Hebrew words קל-אל, which can be taken to mean "voice of God".[172] Larry Tye suggests that this "Voice of God" is an allusion to Moses' role as a prophet.[173] The suffix "el", meaning "(of) God", is also found in the name of angels (e.g. Gabriel, Ariel), who are airborne humanoid agents of good with superhuman powers. The Nazis also thought Superman was a Jew and in 1940 Joseph Goebbels publicly denounced Superman and his creator Siegel.[174]

Superman stories have occasionally exhibited Christian themes as well. Screenwriter Tom Mankiewicz consciously made Superman an allegory for Christ in the 1978 movie starring Christopher Reeve:[175] baby Kal-El's ship resembles the Star of Bethlehem, and Jor-El's gives his son a messianic mission.

Critical reception and popularity

The character Superman and his various comic series have received various awards over the years. Superman placed first on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes.[176]

Video games

A variety of Superman video games have been released, starting with 1978's Superman for the Atari 2600.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Superman #158 (Jan. 1963)
  2. ^ a b Daniels 1998, p. 11
  3. ^ Daniels 1998, p. 18
  4. ^ Wallace, Daniel; Bryan Singer (2006). The Art of Superman Returns. Chronicle Books. p. 22. ISBN 0-8118-5344-6. 
  5. ^ "Designing Man of Steel's costume". Manila Standard (Philippines News). July 21, 2006. Archived from the original on September 3, 2008. Retrieved September 3, 2008. 
  6. ^ Gormly, Kellie B. (June 28, 2006). "Briefs: Blige concert cancelled". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on September 3, 2008. Retrieved September 3, 2008. 
  7. ^ Holt, Douglas B. (2004). How Brands Become Icons: The Principles of Cultural Branding. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. p. 1. ISBN 1-57851-774-5. 
  8. ^ Koehler, Derek J., Harvey, Nigel. (eds.), ed. (2004). Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making. Blackwell. p. 519. ISBN 1-4051-0746-4. 
  9. ^ Dinerstein, Joel (2003). Swinging the machine: Modernity, technology, and African American culture between the wars. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 81. ISBN 1-55849-383-2. 
  10. ^ "Superman number one ranked Supehero on Ign". IGN. Retrieved February 6, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Superman turns 75: Man of Steel milestone puts spotlight on creators' Cleveland roots". Daily News. New York City. The Associated Press. April 17, 2013. Archived from the original on December 1, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2013.  'The encouragement that he received from his English teachers and the editors at the Glenville High School newspaper and the literary magazine gave my dad a real confidence in his talents,' [Laura Siegel Larson] said over the phone from Los Angeles. 
  12. ^ Daniels 1998, pp. 13–14
  13. ^ Ricca (2014), p. 92. "It was the night of Sunday, June 18, 1933."

    Many other sources, including court records, list the year as 1934. The cover to their first Superman comic - the one they submitted to Humor Publishing - is dated 1933.
  14. ^ In Andrae (1983), Siegel is quoted as saying: "Obviously, having him a hero would be infinitely more commercial than having him a villain. I understand that the comic strip Dr. Fu Manchu ran into all sorts of difficulties because the main character was a villain. And with the example before us of Tarzan and other action heroes of fiction who were very successful, mainly because people admired them and looked up to them, it seemed the sensible thing to do to make The Superman a hero. The first piece was a short story, and that's one thing; but creating a successful comic strip with a character you'll hope will continue for many years, it would definitely be going in the wrong direction to make him a villain."
  15. ^ "One night ... ideas kept coming to me and I kept getting up again and again in the night and jotting down these ideas and these scripts until, very early the next morning, I dashed over to Joe's house ... I showed him the script of Superman, the entirely new concept in which there would be a meek mild-mannered reporter Clark Kent... [and] Lois Lane, who scorned him but who flipped over Superman, not knowing Superman and Clark Kent were one and the same person..."
    - Siegel. In Anthony Wall (1981). Superman - The Comic Strip Hero (Television production). BBC. Event occurs at 00:02:42. 
  16. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 17: "... usually [Shuster] and Siegel agreed that no special costume was in evidence, and the surviving artwork bears them out. The most important point on which [Siegel and Shuster] are clear is that this version of the hero had no superpowers."
  17. ^ In Andrae (1983), Shuster is quoted as saying: "It wasn't really Superman: that was before he evolved into a costumed figure. He was simply wearing a T-shirt and pants..."
  18. ^ Humor Publishing Company at the Grand Comics Database.
  19. ^ Dan Dunn at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012.
  20. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 17
  21. ^ a b Ricca (2014), p. 99: "Jerry was convinced, just as he was in those early pulp days, that you had to align yourself with someone famous to be famous yourself."
  22. ^ Tye (2012): "'When I told Joe of this, he unhappily destroyed the drawn-up pages of "THE SUPERMAN" burning them in the furnace of his apartment building,' Jerry recalled. 'At my request, he gave me as a gift the torn cover.'"
  23. ^ a b Jones (2004), p. 112-113
  24. ^ Trexler, Jeff (August 20, 2008). "Superman's Hidden History: The Other "First" Artist". Newsarama.com. Archived from the original on August 26, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2008. 
  25. ^ "Scans of Siegel and Keaton's collaboration". Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2015. 
  26. ^ a b Ricca (2014), p. 102: "Jerry tried to sell this version to the syndicates, but no one was interested, so Keaton gave up."
  27. ^ Over the years, Siegel and Shuster made contradictory statements regarding when they developed Superman's familiar costume. They occasionally claimed to have developed it immediately in 1933, but Daniels (1998) writes: "... usually [Shuster] and Siegel agreed that no special costume was in evidence [in 1933], and the surviving artwork bears them out." The cover art for their 1933 proposal to Humor Publishing shows a shirtless, cape-less Superman. Siegel's collaboration with Russell Keaton in 1934 contains no description or illustration of Superman in costume. Tye (2012) writes that Siegel and Shuster developed the costume shortly after they resumed working together.
  28. ^ Letter quoted in Ricca (2014), p. 146
  29. ^ Ricca (2014), pp. 46-47
  30. ^ Ricca (2014), p. 134 "They submitted and resubmitted for several years."
  31. ^ Siegel, Jerry. Unpublished memoir "The Story Behind Superman #1", registered for U.S. copyright in 1978 under later version Creation of a Superhero as noted by Tye (2012), p. 309. Memoir additionally cited by Ricca (2014), p. 148, and available online at sites including "The Story Behind Superman #1". Superman-Through-the-Ages.com. p. 5 of manuscript. Archived from the original on December 20, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2015. 
  32. ^ Siegel, "The Story Behind Superman #1", manuscript pages 5, 6, and 7.
  33. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 17: The letter from Siegel and Shuster to Jack Liebowitz reads:

    Dated March 1

    I, the undersigned, am an artist or author and have performed work for strip entitled SUPERMAN

    In consideration of $130.00 agreed to be paid me by you, I hereby sell and transfer such work and strip, all good will attached thereto and exclusive right to the use of the characters and story, continuity and title of strip contained therein, to you and your assigns to have and hold forever and to be your exclusive property and I agree not to employ said characters by their names contained therein or under any other names at any time hereafter to any other person firm or corporation, or permit the use thereof by said other parties without obtaining your written consent therefor. The intent hereof is to give you exclusive right to use and acknowledge that you own said characters or story and the use thereof, exclusively. I have received the above sum of money.

    Sgd. Joe Shuster
    Sgd. Jerome Siegel
    Returned by mail on March 3, 1938

    Ricca (2014) notes that there were several versions of this contract with different signees.

  34. ^ Ricca (2014): "The facts are that it was Harry [Donenfeld] who signed [Siegel and Shuster], at Gaines’s direction, and when McClure sold the Superman strip to the newspapers, McClure bought the rights from Harry, not the boys. It was then Donenfeld who not only now owned the property, but received the lion’s share of the profits; whatever Jerry and Joe got was parsed out by him."
  35. ^ Muir, John Kenneth (July 2008). The Encyclopedia of Superheroes on Film and Television. McFarland & Co. p. 539. ISBN 978-0-7864-3755-9. 
  36. ^ a b Daniels (1998), p. 44
  37. ^ Daniels 1998, p. 13
  38. ^ a b Daniels 1998, p. 69
  39. ^ Eury (2006), p. 38
  40. ^ Daniels (1995), p. 28
  41. ^ Superman #423 and Action Comics #583 at the Grand Comics Database.
  42. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 150
  43. ^ Hyde, David (May 31, 2011). "Announces Historic Renumbering of All Superhero Titles and Landmark Day-and-Date Digital Distribution". DC Comics. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2012. 
  44. ^ Uzumeri, David (June 10, 2011). "The New Superman Titles Are Here, Grant Morrison on 'Action Comics'". ComicsAlliance.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2015. 
  45. ^ Action Comics vol. 2, #1. DC Comics
  46. ^ Truitt, Brian (February 2, 2015). "New power, fresh look for Man of Steel in 'Superman'". USA Today. Archived from the original on December 5, 2015. Retrieved February 3, 2015. 
  47. ^ Andrae (1983): "...when I did the version in 1934, (which years later, in 1938, was published, in revised form, in Action Comics #1) the John Carter stories did influence me. Carter was able to leap great distances because the planet Mars was smaller that the planet Earth; and he had great strength. I visualized the planet Krypton as a huge planet, much larger than Earth; so whoever came to Earth from that planet would be able to leap great distances and lift great weights."
  48. ^ Steranko (1970), p. 37: "Wylie's story was one of Siegel's favorites; he even reviewed it in his S-F fanzine."
  49. ^ Feeley, Gregory (March 2005). "When World-views Collide: Philip Wylie in the Twenty-first Century". Science Fiction Studies 32 (95). ISSN 0091-7729. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2006. 
  50. ^ Jones (2004), p. 346: Wylie threatened to sue Siegel for plagiarism in 1940, but there is no evidence that he carried through with the litigation. Historian Jones writes that, "Siegel flatly denied that Wylie's novel had influenced him in any way," although Jones added his own conjecture that "the timing and striking similarities ... would seem to leave no doubt of Gladiator's role".
  51. ^ a b c d Andrae (1983)
  52. ^ Andrae (1983): "... I was inspired by the movies. In the silent films, my hero was Douglas Fairbanks Senior, who was very agile and athletic. So I think he might have been an inspiration to us, even in his attitude. He had a stance which I often used in drawing Superman. You'll see in many of his roles—including Robin Hood—that he always stood with his hands on his hips and his feet spread apart, laughing—taking nothing seriously."
  53. ^ a b Best, Daniel (August 3, 2012). "'Jerry and I did a comic book together...' Jerry Siegel & Joe Shuster Interviewed". 20th Century Danny Boy. Archived from the original on December 4, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015. 
  54. ^ a b c d e Ricca (2014)
  55. ^ Andrae (1983): "I also had classical heroes and strongmen in mind, and this shows in the footwear. In the third version Superman wore sandals laced halfway up the calf. You can still see this on the cover of Action #1, though they were covered over in red to look like boots when the comic was printed."
  56. ^ a b The Mythology of Superman (DVD). Warner Bros. 2006. 
  57. ^ Jacobson, Howard (March 5, 2005). "Up, Up and Oy Vey!". The Times (UK). p. 5. : "If Siegel and Shuster knew of Nietzsche's Ubermensch, they didn't say..."
  58. ^ Ricca (2014): "[Harry Donenfeld] said that if [Siegel] and [Shuster] would sign a ten-year deal, they could do the newspaper strips, and they would get some royalties. When Jerry balked, Harry reminded him that National owned all of the rights to Superman and, quite frankly, he could get someone else to write and draw it if he wanted to."
  59. ^ a b c d e Sergi (2015)
  60. ^ 17 U.S.C. § 304(b):
    "Any copyright still in its renewal term at the time that the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act becomes effective shall have a copyright term of 95 years from the date copyright was originally secured."
  61. ^ D.C. Comics, Inc. v. Crazy Eddie, Inc., 410 U.S.P.Q. 1177 (1979). The court ruled: "This is not a case of fair use, but one of unjustifiable appropriation of copyrighted material for personal profit."
  62. ^ a b Friedrich, Otto (March 14, 1988). "Up, Up and Awaaay!!!". Time. p. 6. Retrieved June 6, 2010. 
  63. ^ a b c d Wallace, Dan (2008). "Alternate Earths". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 20–21. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5. 
  64. ^ Daniels (1998), p. 67
  65. ^ a b c d Daniels (1998), p. 42
  66. ^ O'Neil, Dennis (w), Dillin, Dick (p), Greene, Sid (i). "Star Light, Star Bright – Death Star I See Tonight!" Justice League of America 73 (August 1969), DC Comics
  67. ^ Byrne, John (w)(p), Giordano, Dick (i). The Man of Steel Ed. Barry Marx. DC Comics, 1987. ISBN 0-930289-28-5.
  68. ^ Jurgens, Dan, Ordway, Jerry, Simonson, Louise et al. (w), Jurgens, Dan, Guice, Jackson, Bogdanove, Jon, et al. (p), Rodier, Denis, Janke, Dennis, Breeding, Brett et al. (i). The Death of Superman Ed. Mike Carlin. NY:DC Comics, April 14, 1993. ISBN 1-56389-097-6.
  69. ^ Jurgens, Dan, Kesel, Karl, Simonson, Louise et al. (w), Jurgens, Dan, Guice, Jackson, Bogdanove, Jon, et al. (p), Rodier, Denis, Janke, Dennis, Breeding, Brett et al. (i). The Return of Superman (Reign of the Supermen) Ed. Mike Carlin. NY:DC Comics, September 3, 1993. ISBN 1-56389-149-2.
  70. ^ Waid, Mark (w), Yu, Leinil Francis (a). Superman: Birthright. NY:DC Comics, October 1, 2005. ISBN 1-4012-0252-7.
  71. ^ Johns, Geoff (w), Jimenez, Phil, Pérez, George, Ordway, Jerry et al. (a). Infinite Crisis. NY:DC Comics, September 20, 2006. ISBN 1-4012-0959-9 ISBN 978-1-4012-0959-9
  72. ^ Johns, Geoff, Busiek, Kurt (w), Woods, Peter, Guedes, Renato (a). Superman: Up, Up and Away! NY:DC Comics, 2006. ISBN 1-4012-0954-8 ISBN 978-1-4012-0954-4.
  73. ^ Robinson, James and Gates, Sterling (w). Superman: War of the Supermen 4 (May 2010), DC Comics
  74. ^ "Superman’s New Comic Book Costume Revealed". Screen Rant. 
  75. ^ Action Comics vol. 2 #41, June 2015
  76. ^ "DC Comics Debuts New Costumes for Superman, Wonder Woman". Comic Book Resources. 
  77. ^ Batman/Superman #21
  78. ^ Superboy #171, January 1971
  79. ^ For example, Superman Annual #11 (1985).
  80. ^ Superman #263 (April 1973)
  81. ^ For example, Action Comics #655 (July 1990).
  82. ^ a b Daniels (1995), pp. 22–23
  83. ^ Lee, Jim. "From the Co-Publishers", "The Source" (column), DC Comics, January 20, 2011. WebCitation archive.
  84. ^ Weldon 2013, p. 33
  85. ^ Glen Weldon (2013). Superman the Unauthorized Biography. p. 55. 
  86. ^ "The religion of Superman (Clark Kent / Kal-El)". Adherents.com. August 14, 2007. 
  87. ^ a b Rucka, Greg (w), Lopez, David (p). "Affirmative Defense" Wonder Woman v2, 220 (October 2005), DC Comics
  88. ^ Action Comics #594 (1987)
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